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How to Protect Your Garden from Drought

How to Protect Your Garden from Drought

Ninety-eight % of all local weather scientists agree that international warming – predominantly brought on by human exercise, from the burning of fossil fuels to the intensive farming of livestock and the air pollution of the world’s oceans – is a truth. (The remaining two %, by the best way, are virtually all scientists whose analysis has been funded not less than partly by fossil gas firms.) Apart from rising sea ranges and elevated incidences of utmost climate occasions like hurricanes and tsunamis, one of many major results international warming has on the planet is longer and extra intense durations of drought. Certainly, current years have seen file droughts in lots of elements of the world. For instance, in 2014, 4 Central American international locations – Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala – skilled their worst drought on file, inflicting greater than half one million households to face starvation from failing crops and livestock losses. The identical 12 months, the state of Queensland in Australia skilled its largest recorded drought, with roughly 80 % of the realm of the state affected. Whereas a lot of the USA noticed drought situations for successive summers from 2010, with many places experiencing, in 2013, their driest 12 months for over 130 years.

In the event you reside in a location that experiences drought, you’ll know the impact that it may possibly have in your permaculture plot. Nevertheless it appears possible, until there’s a far more concentrated effort to curb greenhouse gasoline emissions, that an increasing number of folks will expertise drought sooner or later. Listed below are some issues you are able to do to assist restrict the affect drought situation can have in your website.

Soil preparation
One of the best technique for making ready your website to resist the trials of a interval of drought is to begin making ready for it early. Ensuring that you’ve an excellent soil construction is a key a part of such preparation. You need to intention for an excellent steadiness of clay and sand so that you’ve a loamy soil. Not solely will this be the best rising medium for many crops, making certain that they’re sturdy earlier than the drought situations arrive, however will assist protect what moisture does go on the soil. If the soil is simply too sandy, any moisture will percolate by the soil too shortly to be helpful to crops. You would possibly suppose that having heavier, clay soils could be a good suggestion, contemplating that clay holds moisture extra readily than sandy soil. Nevertheless, in drought situations, clay soils harden, making moisture percolation far more troublesome. Treating your soil with a lot of natural compost will give crops the vitamins they want and promote microorganism exercise that can assist preserve an excellent construction. A superb soil construction will encourage crops to ship roots down deeply into the soil profile, trying to find water, making them higher in a position to stand up to occasions when moisture is scarce.

Water preparation
Instituting a rainwater harvesting system is one other vital preparatory step you may take earlier than drought situations arrive. Arguably, capturing rainwater runoff is one thing all permaculture gardeners ought to do if doable, because it preserves a useful resource that’s treasured, finite and all too usually wasted. Nevertheless, in drought-afflicted areas, it’s much more vital. Merely putting a water barrel on the base of your guttering downspout can seize gallons of water that could possibly be essential to your crops’ survival within the hottest occasions of the 12 months. When designing your plot, make water preservation and seize a major design affect. Maybe it could imply digging swales on downhill slopes to gather runoff from the land, or including an underground rainwater-harvesting tank that’s fed by diverting pipework from all buildings on the positioning. No matter is possible on this regard in your permaculture backyard, capturing and reusing rainwater will be key to defending your crops from the worst of the drought.

Mulch
Mulching is a crucial technique for all permaculture gardeners, however particularly for these in drought-fallen-leaves-65544_640affected fallen-leaves-65544_640areas. A superb layer of natural mulch – be it straw, wooden chips, fallen leaves or newspaper – could make an enormous distinction to crops when temperatures are excessive. Certainly, mulch can maintain the soil as a lot as 15 levels cooler that the air temperature when the thermometer soars. Mulch additionally slows evaporation of moisture from the soil, leaving extra within the soil profile for the crops to entry, and helps maintain roots cool so they’re more practical at absorbing out there moisture and vitamins.

Water
Look to your crops to information you about watering them in the course of the drought interval. Throughout such occasions, water turns into an much more treasured useful resource, and your native authorities might even place water restrictions on inhabitants. As such, you don’t need to be losing water. Effectively-established timber and shrubs, as an example, can often survive a number of weeks with out water, whereas you perennials and annuals require moisture extra usually. While you do water, water closely as soon as every week or so, including round an inch of water to the backyard beds. In drought situations, a sparse sprinkling, even when completed on daily basis, will merely evaporate from the floor of the soil earlier than it has had an opportunity to sink into the soil the place the plant roots can entry it. Gradual watering may even assist the water penetrate the soil. You might also need to contemplate drip irrigation programs to your most weak crops. These will permit the water to be directed on the roots the place it’s wanted most, and keep away from moisture sitting on the floor the place it may possibly evaporate. Water early within the morning or later within the night to permit the utmost quantity of water to penetrate the soil.

Sow
When deigning your permaculture plot, the usage of native crops which might be tailored to the soil and local weather in your space is an efficient technique for making certain your crops survive no matter climate situations your plot experiences. As soon as method to reinforce that is to sow seeds instantly into the backyard for cultivation, relatively than elevating seedlings in a protected atmosphere. Planting seeds exterior helps the crops acclimatize to their atmosphere as they germinate, and means they’re possible to have the ability to stand up to a relative lack of moisture for longer – even when only a day or two longer – than crops that had been first raised within the managed, modified environment of a greenhouse or inside the home, earlier than being transplanted to the backyard.

7 Permaculture Ideas for Renters

7 Permaculture Ideas for Renters

Permaculture is for everybody. It is among the greatest methods of manufacturing meals, minimizing our influence upon the planet, and shifting in the direction of a self-sustainable mannequin that focuses on folks and nature, moderately than earnings. Nonetheless, generally it will possibly appear very exhausting to get began with permaculture. That is notably true when you reside in rented lodging. Until you could have an amenable landlord and the posh of a long-term safe lease, it will possibly appear daunting, even pointless to try to institute permaculture practices on a plot that you might have to depart with only a month’s discover.

Pots
One of many best methods to comply with the permaculture precept of rising your personal meals on a rented property is to plant in pots. There are various species of harvestable crops which are completely comfortable in pots, and it means you could transfer them to a different property when you depart your present residence, in addition to transfer them round your backyard in several seasons to provide them one of the best rising circumstances, akin to giving them entry to the early morning spring sunshine and shade from the blistering afternoon summer time rays. Rising in pots is a good answer for individuals who might have a really small yard or solely a balcony as exterior house. And don’t fear about shopping for expensive new pots, you possibly can normally discover pots at backyard facilities which have been marked down due to a chip or comparable superficial injury. Failing that, something can function a pot with a number of drainage holes punched within the backside, so have a look at recycling previous buckets and even sinks.

Most herbs will develop very properly in pots. Keep away from planting mint in a pot with different herbs because it tends to dominate a rising location. Citrus bushes can develop properly in pots, as do Bay and fig bushes. With regards to greens, leafy greens like spinach, kale and lettuce do properly, whereas climbing crops like tomatoes and beans, in addition to root crops like potatoes and radishes are additionally viable.

Planting in pots advantages from good natural compost and a daily ‘topping up’ with compost tea. Scale back water utilization by inserting your pots on plates or in trays in order that water that percolates al the best way by means of the pot is caught and nonetheless accessible for reabsorption by the plant.

Seeds
If you’ll be able to plant instantly into the backyard, make a behavior of amassing and storing seeds out of your favorite, most profitable and native crops. Seeds may be saved within the fridge for a number of years and nonetheless are capable of germinate when replanted, so you possibly can set up your most popular cultivars whenever you transfer to a different property. You might additionally take cuttings whenever you transfer.

Rooster Coop
In case your landlord lets you have chickens in your rental property, assemble a rooster coop you could transport with you whenever you transfer. It saves on constructing one other one, and the chickens will recognize the familiarity of their coop, decreasing the stress of relocation.

Water Barrel
Whilst you in all probability gained’t have the ability to set up a big water tank on the property, you possibly can nonetheless harvest rainwater in a barrel. This will present water for irrigation, in your chickens if in case you have them, and even for some family duties akin to washing up and flushing the bathroom, relying on the quantity of rainfall your location receives. Your landlord might mean you can divert the circulation from the gutter into the barrel, or there might merely be a leak within the gutter you could find the barrel beneath.

Beds
Rental properties are usually let on yearlong leases. Whilst you might renew each twelve months, you by no means know permaculture ideaswhen you might want to maneuver. Maybe the owner has determined to promote the property, otherwise you obtain a windfall enabling you to purchase your personal place. Due to this potential shorter timescale, you wish to get most productiveness out of your backyard beds shortly. Composting and companion planting are your instruments in doing so. By including a great quantity of natural compost to beds, and siting crops that go with each other you’re making certain that the soil has ample ranges of vitamins for the crops to thrive. These strategies imply you possibly can densely plant your beds and get a bigger harvest, even when you solely have a small house.

Observe
If you’re on a short-term lease or the owner is against your making any adjustments to the land, you possibly can nonetheless use your rental property to additional your permaculture goals, through the use of your time to hone your commentary abilities. Every bit of land the place soil is offered to crops, nevertheless small, could have life on it. Take time to note what happens on the land, the crops that colonize it, the bugs and different wildlife that go to it, the best way wind, rain and solar act upon it. These abilities of commentary will stand you in good stead for future permaculture tasks when you find yourself dwelling on a property that’s extra appropriate for them.

Neighborhood
In case your landlord doesn’t mean you can alter the rental property in your permaculture challenge, it provides you the chance to look into neighborhood initiatives so you possibly can nonetheless develop your personal meals. Some cities and cities have public house that has been given over to neighborhood gardens. This offers you rising house in addition to a bunch of like-minded folks to share your permaculture ideas and strategies with. You may also have a land share challenge in your native space, whereby these with additional house, ‘lease’ out land to these with out entry to land to permit them to develop meals. Usually, you’ll pay the ‘lease’ with a small proportion of your harvest.

In fact, in case your landlord doesn’t object, you would additionally institute extra everlasting permaculture practices in your rented backyard, with a view to a longer-term challenge that can characteristic perennials and a backyard that can mature over time. If it’s a must to or select to depart the property, this sustainable backyard offering meals for the inhabitants of the rental property may be seen as a present to future occupants. Who is aware of, it might simply open somebody’s eyes to the great thing about permaculture and encourage them in their very own efforts.

How to Attract Bats to Garden

How to Attract Bats to Garden

Other than the apparent exception of owls, most hen species are energetic through the day. However many insect species are nocturnal, and pests can injury crops within the night time with nothing to cease them. That’s when attracting bats to your permaculture plot can present an answer. All bats are night-feeders, and most are insectivores, taking bugs on the wing, scooping them from the floor of water our bodies, or foraging for them in bushes, shrubs and floor cowl, on a regular basis utilizing their echolocation skills to hone in on prey with ultrasonic sound. A number of of the greater than 40 species of bat that inhabit the U.S. feed on nectar and fruit. However these species are helpful to the backyard as properly, with nectar-feeders serving to to pollinate crops, and fruit feeders consuming fallen fruit that would turn into dwelling to insect pest larvae.

Utilizing permaculture design to attracting bats to your web site can be helpful to the animals as properly. Not solely are you creating situations that can meet their wants, you might be offering necessary bat-friendly habitat. Bat populations in a lot of the world – like many different species of wildlife – are underneath strain, primarily by way of lack of habitat to human incursion (though many are intentionally killed by gardeners and farmers over the misguided concern that they carry rabies – they don’t). Certainly, it’s estimated that just about half of all bat populations within the U.S. are presently underneath risk. Through the use of native plant species and selling biodiversity, the permaculture gardener helps to safe the way forward for these charming nocturnal mammals. Bat populations exist in each city and rural settings, so any permaculturist can undertake deign strategies to draw bats to their web site.

Vegetation
The permaculture apply of planting all kinds of various plant species on the plot is an effective manner of drawing in bats – not for the crops in and of themselves, however for the big variety of insect species they’ll appeal to. Utilizing native species, and varieties that you might have seen frequented by bats within the surrounding space, is beneficial. Herbs are significantly helpful in attracting bugs, so plant all kinds of native herbs in your permaculture design – with the additional benefit of supplying you with loads of selection on your kitchen. You possibly can additionally make the most of night-scenting crops, as these will appeal to moths and different nocturnal bugs in abundance. There are numerous night-scenting flower species, however in a permaculture backyard it’s preferable to make use of cultivars that will even present a yield. Elder, globe artichokes and verbena are all appropriate selection, alongside herbs like borage and chives, and fruit bushes akin to apples, pears and quince. In fact, planting to draw plenty of bugs implies that there could also be occasions when there are numerous them, significantly within the spring an summer time once they breed. Nevertheless, this simply provides to the biodiversity of the location and good upkeep practices ought to guarantee helpful bugs, birds and bats maintain them from inflicting extreme injury to your crops.

Timber
Timber and shrubs are additionally searching grounds for bats, as they supply shelter and heat for bugs, and locations the place insect larvae and younger can reside. Timber may present shelter for smaller, slower bats, which choose to not cross massive areas of open area for concern of predators like owls and hawks. They are going to use tree canopies, shrubs and hedges to guard themselves from detection. Depart useless, hole bushes on the location as potential roosting locations.

Water
Like all animals bats want a relentless provide of recent water to drink. If in case you have a stream operating by way of your property, this will probably be enticing to bats, however even on a smaller web site, including a birdbath and even only a container of recent water – ideally harvested rainwater, and positioned away from the bottom so the bats will not be drawn into the vary of home cats or canine – will draw bats to your permaculture backyard. A pond will even present habitat for aquatic bugs to breed and develop. This will even appeal to bats, as they’ll predate bugs resting within the floor of the pond or on aquatic crops across the edge. It’s also thought that bats use our bodies of water, significantly linear options akin to streams, to navigate their manner round their vary. (One other backyard characteristic that can increase populations of bugs that bats prefer to eat is an open compost pile.)

Shelter
Bats will usually discover their very own place to roost, and since they vary over massive areas, they have an inclination to choose out-of-Barnthe-way locations like barns on farms or caves. Nevertheless, with the lack of appropriate habitat, they’re more and more being seen roosting on buildings in city areas, or bushes in municipal parks. They will even shelter through the day in small teams in hole bushes, underneath the bark of residing bushes, and underneath tiles and soffits in roofs. Pay attention to potential roosting websites in your property and don’t disturb them if bats select to make use of them. You may as well present shelter for bats by putting in bat packing containers in your web site. Just like hen packing containers, a bat field could be bought, however is pretty simple to assemble from recycled timber. Simply be certain that the timber has not been painted or handled with wooden preservatives. You’ll be able to place bat packing containers on tree trunks however these are typically lass favorable spots as they don’t seem to be as heat as packing containers positioned on the edges of buildings or on devoted poles. With each these latter places, be certain that the bat field is out of the attain of home animals, and in heat however sheltered points – a southerly or westerly is finest. Keep away from putting packing containers too close to doorways and home windows, because the bats will probably be disturbed by the proximity to individuals. You additionally wish to place the packing containers in places which can be inaccessible to snakes, who’re, together with birds or prey, the bats’ major predators. Bins will ideally have a small opening with a platform under it that juts out for the bats to land on.

6 Sources of Renewable Energy

6 Sources of Renewable Energy

Ninety seven p.c of scientists agree that man-made local weather change is an actual and current hazard to the well being of the planet. The emissions produced by the burning of fossil fuels is inflicting modifications within the environment which can be impacting upon temperature, excessive climate occasions and rising ocean ranges. Local weather change is arguably the most important risk to life on earth we at present face.

The most important contributor to the issue is our reliance on fossil fuels for vitality. Burning fuel, coal and oil – be it in factories to create electrical energy or in vehicles within the type of gasoline – releases dangerous toxins equivalent to carbon dioxide that soak up and emit thermal radiation again on the earth when they’re within the environment.

A secondary downside with the usage of fossil fuels to fulfill the vitality wants of the human inhabitants is that they’re finite assets. Certainly, some consider that we now have already handed the purpose of ‘peak’ manufacturing and that any further they may turn into scarcer. As reserves are depleted there will probably be elevated battle over the scarce the rest. That’s, if we don’t do one thing to scale back our want for these assets.

The easiest way to scale back the necessity for fossil fuels is to seek out methods to provide vitality that don’t hurt the surroundings and are renewable. The excellent news is that we have already got a number of such strategies obtainable to us; we simply want the political will to make them extra central to our vitality plans.

Photo voltaic
Vitality from the solar is free and inexhaustible. Photo voltaic panels seize daylight and convert it into vitality. There are two essential methods of doing this. The primary is photo voltaic thermal vitality, which converts photo voltaic vitality into warmth. This can be utilized to warmth water and even to drive a refrigeration system. Photo voltaic thermal vitality may also be utilized to create steam, which in flip can drive generators to provide electrical energy. The second methodology is termed photovoltaic, which converts the vitality from the solar immediately into electrical energy. That is achieved by means of photo voltaic cells that may be built-in into constructing rooftops or positioned in areas of open land.

Wind
Wind is one other pure climate phenomenon that may be harnessed to provide vitality. Fluctuations in temperature and air stress mix with the rotation of the planet to make air transfer across the floor of the earth. Inserting generators within the path of this wind allows the manufacturing of electrical energy. The blades of the turbine are rotated by the wind, which drives an electrical generator. A single turbine can feasibly present all of the vitality necessities of a single property relying on the native weather conditions, whereas wind farms use a number of generators to mixture vitality for a bigger location, equivalent to a city. Wind farms will be situated on the land or in shallow coastal waters of the ocean.

Ocean
The ocean can present vitality in different methods than merely the positioning for wind generators. There are two sorts of ocean vitality. The primary is produced by the kinetic vitality of water motion. Waves and tides will be harnessed to drive electrical manufacturing by way of generators. The second kind of vitality within the ocean is that from the thermal warmth the ocean has absorbed from the solar. It makes use of the temperature distinction between the hotter floor waters of the ocean and the cooler waters at depth to run a thermodynamic warmth vitality which might create electrical energy.

Hydro
Just like ocean energy, however situated on water sources on the land, hydropower harnesses the vitality of falling or flowing water. The liquid is diverted onto turbine blades that rotate a shaft to drive an electrical energy generator. Prior to now hydropower was used to show watermills on mills to rotate grain grinders. At present hydropower programs are usually included into giant dams.

Bioenergy
Permaculture gardeners understand how a lot profit decaying plant and animal matter can carry to the soil on their plot. That’s why compost and mulch are integral elements of permaculture design. However the vitality launched from these supplies may also be harnessed to provide energy. Bioenergy manufacturing takes ‘waste’ materials – be it agricultural and forestry castoffs, manure or municipal landfill waste – and captures the gases which can be launched as they decompose. These gases can then be used to create warmth, to drive generators to provide electrical energy or to provide fuels for machines and vehicles.

Geothermal
Decay performs a component in geothermal vitality as properly, though on a for much longer timescale. There’s a fixed move of warmth from the centre of the Earth to the floor. The warmth on the heart – that are over 5000 levels Celsius – is produced by the decay of radioactive components equivalent to uranium and thorium within the Earth’s core over thousands and thousands of years. This vitality is harnessed by both extracting water from under the sub floor rocks, as a result of it has been heated by this decaying vitality and might create steam to drive generators, or by pumping chilly water into these rocks, permitting it to be heated, then harnessing the resultant steam when the water is returned to the floor. Geothermal vitality has the good thing about not being reliant on the time of day or climate for manufacturing, and geothermal crops can theoretically function 24 hours a day.

Many of those strategies of manufacturing renewable vitality will be mixed to create hybrid programs. As an illustration, photo voltaic panels are sometimes sources of renewable energyincluded into wind turbine design, because the places wherein the generators will be simplest are sometimes the identical that have good ranges of daylight. The vitality from the 2 sources is aggregated to generate extra electrical vitality.
Permaculturists and different residents can definitely examine putting photo voltaic panels or a wind turbine on their property to scale back their reliance on fossil gasoline vitality and decreasing their gasoline payments. Additionally it is essential that political events – who’re topic to concerted lobbying from fossil gasoline firms – have the far-sightedness to make renewable vitality a major objective in vitality coverage. So let your native consultant know that you simply favor candidates who assist renewables.

4 Tips for Growing Citrus Trees

4 Tips for Growing Citrus Trees

The fruits that grow on the citrus trees are a very commonly used crop. People use it for various things, making drinks taste better, for salads, in cereal or sometimes cooking with meat and of course we use them for making various desserts. Citrus fruits are full of vitamins and other good ingredients. However, the problem with citrus trees is that they require a special care that not many gardeners know. That’s why we have decided to share with you some of the secrets to growing a citrus tree.

Growing them can be easy if you know exactly what and how to do. For that, we at regenerative leadership institute have decided to teach you all the ways you need to treat your citrus tree. Like any other fruit tree, citrus trees also require a lot of sunshine in order to produce fruits. Citrus trees can grow strong even in small limited spaces. Here is the basic guideline that can be used for most of the citrus trees.

Position

Citrus Trees

Positioning your citrus tree plays a very big part in maintaining it. You need to position the tree in a way so it will be exposed to the sun a long period of time during the day. For these citrus trees, the minimum required sunshine is around five hours. If your climate is a little colder, then consider planning the tree near a wall that will radiate heat to the tree. Walls are also good because they will protect the tree from strong winds that usually happen in those colder climates.

Soil

The best type of soil for these trees is when the soil has a neutral pH. If your pH is too high, you can lower it with adding organic compost to it. The best option is to add compost that consists of livestock manure because tropical trees are more likely to thrive if they have a good soil full of nutrients. Try to plant the citrus tree far away from grass because the grass can compete with the tree for nutrients and water.

Water

Watering Citrus Tree

Just like any other fruit tree, in order to successfully grow, the citrus tree also requires a lot of watering. Especially right at the start when you plant it. While the tree is still young, you should water it twice per week. That will help them stabilize much faster. The time for watering these types of trees is usually in the morning or late in the evenings, that way you will give the trees the highest chance to use that moist.

Care

This is probably the part that most of you are interested in because you think that there is some special way to care and maintain these trees. However, it is quite simple to take care of them. The one thing that you must be concerned about is the winter time. usually, the citrus trees are able to survive the winter, but if the winters are harsh and lasting a long time you should probably protect the tree somehow.

3 Types of Composting Methods

3 Types of Composting Methods

If you want to find out the most energy efficient way to improve the quality of your soil, then having compost is the thing you are looking for. It will save you a lot of money because you won’t have to purchase nutrition and quality topsoil for your garden anymore. You will have even higher quality topsoil in your compost.

There are two different type of composting methods the cold and the hot one. The cold method will turn your organic waste material into usable compost much faster than the hot one. However, it will take more time for you to achieve that cold effect. The hot method is very simple but it takes more time to form usable compost from it. You need to create a hotspot in the middle of it that will be anywhere from 110 to 140 degrees F. You need to make sure that the pile is most at all times. It is recommended to turn over the compost once per week in order to achieve the wanted result.

Composting Hot Methods

The cold method, on the other hand, doesn’t require that much attention because you essentially need to let nature do its job without interfering. Usually, for the cold method, you need to wait up to a year to be able to use that compost for your soil.

Ingredients

The ingredients for both methods are the same, you need to put in equal amount of green and brown material in order to create the perfect mixture that will provide all the necessary nutrients. The brown materials that you need to put in are leaves and twigs and the green material is all the fruits and vegetables that are not usable. For better results, we at the regenerative leadership institute are using manure from livestock. If you don’t have your own compost we recommend that you build one, here are some of the methods to creating the best permaculture composts.

Bin

Composting Bin

Making your compost in a bin means that you will be putting all the ingredients in a closed container. It is considered to be one of the easiest methods because it is very adaptable to various situations and you can even transport it to some other location without a lot of effort. However, not many people use this method, usually people that live in a flat they use this method to leave the container out on the balcony.

Turning Bin

Turning bins are invented just for one purpose and that is to faster up the composting process. These containers are made so they can be easily turned over. Usually, composts are very heavy, that’s why this method is very popular and good for use. However, it is hard to use the hot method for composing in these turning bins. They are usually used for the longer cold method of composting.

Pile

The pile method for composing is the most likely the easiest because as the name says you only need to pile all the ingredients on one place. For this method, people usually build a small brick or wooden wall that will protect the pile from three sides.

Building Your Own Raised Garden Bed

Building Your Own Raised Garden Bed

Raised garden beds have a lot of benefits, that’s why many permaculture gardeners are preferring to have them over any other type of garden. They are especially beneficial to people that have some kind of a mobility issue. Old people find these raised garden beds much more suitable for them because they are raised and they don’t need to bend over that much. These garden bed can be purchased, but we recommend that you try and build them because the finished ones can be expensive. They are really easy to put together and it doesn’t require a lot of your time. If you don’t have any experience with these raised beds, then we suggest that you read through this article carefully. The experts from regenerative leadership institute have carefully put together a list of things that will help you use these garden beds much simpler

Size

Garden Bed

The size that you will purchase or make these beds will depend only on you, more specifically space you have for them. Therefore, before making your purchase or starting to construct them, we suggest that you first measure the space that you have for them. Make sure that you have space to walk beside them and in-between the rows because you will have to regular maintain those garden beds.

Materials

If you decide that you don’t want to purchase the already build garden beds, then you will have to build them yourself. The best materials for building these beds is probably recycled lumber or even cedar. You have to make sure that the lumber you are using to build the beds must not be treated. If you see any signs of paint or any other chemical on it, consider using some different lumber. Those chemicals can affect the soil that you will fill the beds with.

Construction

Garden Bed ideas

When you get all the necessary materials for building the garden beds, you can start constructing them. The best way to construct them is to watch some pictures or videos online that you can find. One important thing to know before you start building it is to build the beds on the location they will be sitting. That is because they can be difficult to move around after they are put together.

Filling

Before filling the beds with fresh soil, make sure that the ground beneath doesn’t have any weeds sticking out or grass growing. If you prepare the base good enough, then you can fill it up with high-quality topsoil.  Quality topsoil will have all the necessary nutrients for your plants.

Plant

Once you have placed the garden beds on their places and filled them up with quality topsoil you are ready to plant your seeds or plants into them. We recommend that you plant seedling over regular seeds because it will be easier for the plants to grow. After you have planted your seedling or seeds, you need to water them regularly for the first few weeks. That will speed up their grow process and they will become stronger much faster.

How to Espalier Fruit Trees

How to Espalier Fruit Trees

Espalier growing trees is a term that permaculture designer knows very well, but it is probably confusing to the other people that don’t know a lot about a tree growing. Espalier growing means that the tree is growing flat. In most cases, it means that the tree is growing alongside a wall, but it can be done to grow along a fence or a wire. That will allow the fruit trees to grow less in depth but wider.

People first started using this technique only for ornamental trees, to shape them how they wanted. However, people started realizing that the trees that grow flat are healthier and produce better fruits. One more benefit of having flat trees is that they require less space, therefore they are better for people that have limited space. The trees are growing faster and stronger because they have a support from a wall and they get additional warmth from the wall. If you want to find out how to properly grow a tree flat, then follow these steps that were put together by the regenerative leadership institute.

Position

Position

Trees that need to be flat are usually the ones that are near to a wall or the ones that are already pushed against the wall. Of course, you can use this method even if you want to save space in your plot. You have to position your fruit tree that way so it can get the sunshine for few hours every day. The Sunshine is extremally important to fruit trees because they use the sun to grow their fruits. So, if you are planting it near a wall, make sure they will get enough sunlight throughout the day.

Tree

Tree

When picking out the tree, you don’t need to especially worry about anything because the majority of the fruit trees are capable of growing flat. The pear and apple tree have been the most two common choices among people to grow flat. They tend to adapt very easily and fast to the espaliering. When you are buying the tree the only thing you need to pay attention to is to buy a tree that is about one year old. That way it will easily adapt to the transplanting but it won’t have developed a large number of branches.

Support

Flat growing trees require something that is stable in order to train their branches. Placing the tree against the wall or fence is not enough, you will need to mount the branches with some wires to train them first. Don’t wire them under tension, make the mount loose so the tree can be trained to grow that way.

Prune

In order to maintain that flat shape or any shape that you want, you must prune your fruit tree regularly. You should start pruning right after you have planted your tree, prune off the main branches of the tree but be careful not to cut too much off. That will help the tree grow with the even faster rate. Regularly check your support wires and prune the excess branches that you think are too long or the ones that are sticking out of the desired shape.

Easy Steps to Protect Your Garden from Drought

Easy Steps to Protect Your Garden from Drought

These days people that have gardens are very scared from the global warming because it will affect their garden. The main effect that global warming has on the planet is much longer and powerful periods of drought. In the last few years, the drought has been much harsher than ever before. People around the world that are depending on their crops were starving and losing their livestock because of the long drought.

If you are living in a place where drought is a common thing, then you most likely know how hard can it be to grow anything. More and more people are starting to experience the drought all around the world because of the global warming. Therefore, we here at the regenerative leadership institute have decided to show you some easy steps that will protect your garden from drought.

Preparation of the Soil

Preparation of the Soil

The mistake a lot of people do is that they start preparing their soil too late. You have to start early if you want to be prepared to survive the harsh drought. You have to have a nicely structured soil, that is the first step to preparation. You have to have the perfect mix of clay and sand in order to have a quality soil. That will ensure a very stable environment for the most plants that you will plant in your garden. If the conditions for the plant is good, the plant will grow strong and it will be able to survive the harsh drought.

Finding the perfect mix of sand and clay requires a lot of experience. For example, if you have too much sand in the mix, the water will go through the soil very fast and the plants will not be able to survive the drought. Knowing this, some people make the mistake of putting a lot of clay into the mix because they think that the clay will preserve a lot of water for a longer period of time than sand. The problem with too much clay in the soil is that it will harden and create huge cracks in the soil. Therefore, you should be extremally careful when preparing your soil for the next season.

Water Preparation

Rainwater collecting system

If you have finished the permaculture design course, then you should know that harvesting rainwater is very important part of the preparation for drought. If you don’t have one, we suggest that you don’t wait any longer and make or buy a rainwater collecting system for your garden before the summer drought arrives at you. Collecting rainwater is important, especially in areas where drought is a common thing. The easiest and the cheapest way to collect the rainwater is to put out a barrel at the end of your guttering system. That way all the rain will be collected in that barrel.

The rainwater that you will collect you can later on use to water your entire garden when the drought comes. Rainwater is much better for your crops and plants than regular water because it contains some nutrients that the plants need.

How to Start Seeds Indoors

How to Start Seeds Indoors

There are many different reasons why people start their seeds indoors. Some people do it because they live in an extremally cold climate where winters last for a long time and their growing season is just available for few months. To those people, growing seeds indoors gives them an advantage when it comes to planting outside.

Growing seeds indoors

A lot of permaculture gardeners that attended the regenerative leadership institute are starting growing seeds indoors because it gives them more time in the growing season. However, some people simply don’t have a choice because the soil outside that they have is not good for planting seeds. The soil can be very hard and that will make impossible for the seeds to push all the way to the surface of the soil. In those situations, the best thing to do is to start growing them indoors and later transplant them outside one they are developed.

Containers

When you are picking out the containers for your seeds, you must look out for only one thing and that is the container has to be able to hold your seeds few inches in the soil. Try not to use things like milk containers, yogurt containers, and other similar things, you can find cheap containers and pots in your local store. However, if you really don’t have any other options than those milk containers, you have to make sure that you make holes at the bottom. That hole will allow the water to drain through the soil. Of course, bigger containers are always better because they will provide more space for your plants to grow their roots. One important thing before you plant anything inside a container is to clean them properly because some containers can carry diseases or pesticides that can damage your seeds.

Planting

Planting

If you don’t have experience with planting anything, you don’t need to worry because it is a very simple process that doesn’t require any previous training or anything. All that you need to know will be usually written on the package of the seed that you have purchased. If there aren’t any instructions about how to plant it, you can ask the people that work at the seed bank for some advice.

However, there is a universal rule that can be used for all seeds, that is to plant the seed 4 times deeper than the diameter of your seed. The soil you are planting into must be moist, and you must regularly water it to preserve the humidity in the soil at least until the seed starts to grow out the soil. We cannot tell you how much time it will take for the seed to grow mature because there are a lot of different factors that affect the growth.

Position

After you have planted the seeds successfully, you should provide it with a little heat. Seeds need that heat especially at the start, but it must not be too hot otherwise you will overheat them. Try putting them on radiators or on the top of your refrigerator.

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